Alessia Gentili & Giorgio Volpe
Diffusion processes are important in several physical, chemical, biological and human phenomena. Examples include molecular encounters in reactions, cellular signalling, the foraging of animals, the spread of diseases, as well as trends in financial markets and climate records. Deviations from Brownian diffusion, known as anomalous diffusion (AnDi), can often be observed in these processes, when the growth of the mean square displacement in time is not linear. An ever-increasing number of methods has thus appeared to characterize anomalous diffusion trajectories based on classical statistics or machine learning approaches. Yet, characterization of anomalous diffusion remains challenging to date as testified by the launch of the AnDi challenge in March 2020 to assess and compare new and pre-existing methods on three different aspects of the problem: the inference of the anomalous diffusion exponent, the classification of the diffusion model, and the segmentation of trajectories. Here, we introduce a novel method (CONDOR) which combines feature engineering based on classical statistics with supervised deep learning to efficiently identify the underlying anomalous diffusion model with high accuracy and infer its exponent with a small mean absolute error in single 1D, 2D and 3D trajectories corrupted by localization noise. Finally, we extend our method to the segmentation of trajectories where the diffusion model and/or its anomalous exponent vary in time.